Liver Panel

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Liver Enzymes should be checked every 1-2 months if the patient is currently on Methotrexate.

SGOT (Serum Glutamic-Oxalocetic Transaminase – AST)

Serum Glutamic Oxalocetic Transaminase or AST is an enzyme found primarily in the liver, heart, kidney, pancreas, and muscles. Seen in tissue damage, especially heart and liver, this enzyme is normally elevated.

Reference Adult Range: 0 – 42 U/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 21

SGPT (Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase – ALT)

Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase or ALT is an enzyme found primarily in the liver but also to a lesser degree, the heart and other tissues. It is useful in diagnosing liver function more so than SGOT levels. Decreased SGPT in combination with increased cholesterol levels is seen in cases of a congested liver. We also see increased levels in mononucleosis, alcoholism, liver damage, kidney infection, chemical pollutants or myocardial infarction.

Reference Adult Range: 0 – 48 U/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 24

GGT (Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase)

Believed to be involved in the transport of amino acids and peptides into cells as well as glutithione metabolism, Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase is mainly found in liver cells and as such is extremely sensitive to alcohol use. Elevated levels may be found in liver disease, alcoholism, bile-duct obstruction, cholangitis, drug abuse, and in some cases excessive magnesium ingestion. Decreased levels can be found in hypothyroidism, hypothalamic malfunction and low levels of magnesium.

Reference Adult Female Range: 0 – 45 U/L
Optimal Female Reading: 22.5
Reference Adult Male Range: 0 – 65 U/L
Optimal Male Reading: 32.5

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE

Produced in the cells of the bone and liver with some activity in the kidney, intestine, and placenta, it is mostly found in an alkaline state with a pH of 9. Used extensively as a tumor marker it is also present in bone injury, pregnancy, or skeletal growth (elevated readings). Growing children have normally higher levels of this enzyme also. Low levels are sometimes found in hypoadrenia, protein deficiency, malnutrition and a number of vitamin deficiencies.

Reference Adult Range: 20 – 125 U/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 72.5
Reference Childrens Range: 40 – 400 U/L
Optimal Childrens Reading: 220Ê

BILIRUBIN, TOTAL

A byproduct of the breakdown of red blood cells in the liver, bilirubin is a good indication of the liverÕs function. Excreted into the bile, bilirubin gives the bile its pigmentation. Elevated in liver disease, mononucleosis, hemolytic anemia, low levels of exposure to the sun, and toxic effects to some drugs, decreased levels are seen in people with an inefficient liver, excessive fat digestion, and possibly a diet low in nitrogen bearing foods.

Reference Adult Range 0 – 1.3 mg/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: .65Ê

LDH (Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase)

Lactic acid dehydrogenase is an intracellular enzyme from particularly in the kidney, heart, skelatal muscle, brain, liver and lungs. Increases are usually found in cellular death and/or leakage from the cell or in some cases it can be useful in confirming myocardial or pulmonary infarction (only in relation to other tests). Decreased levels of the enzyme may be seen in cases of malnutrition, hypoglycemia, adrenal exhaustion or low tissue or organ activity.

Reference Adult Range: 0 – 250 U/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 125Ê

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE

Produced in the cells of the bone and liver with some activity in the kidney, intestine, and placenta, it is mostly found in an alkaline state with a pH of 9. Used extensively as a tumor marker it is also present in bone injury, pregnancy, or skeletal growth (elevated readings). Growing children have normally higher levels of this enzyme also. Low levels are sometimes found in hypoadrenia, protein deficiency, malnutrition and a number of vitamin deficiencies.

Reference Adult Range: 20 – 125 U/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 72.5
Reference Childrens Range: 40 – 400 U/L
Optimal Childrens Reading: 220